000 03646nab a22003257a 4500
001 a56994
003 MX-TxCIM
005 20190927201702.0
008 150818b2015 ne |||p|op||| 00| 0 eng d
024 8 _ahttps://doi.org/10.1016/j.agee.2015.07.011
040 _aMX-TxCIM
041 _aeng
100 1 _91674
_aTerAvest, D.
245 1 0 _aCrop production and soil water management in conservation agriculture, no-till, and conventional tillage systems in Malawi
260 _aAmsterdam (Netherlands) :
_bElsevier,
_c2015.
500 _aPeer review
520 _aSmallholder farming in southern and eastern Africa is constrained by low water-use efficiency, frequent dry spells, and drought. Conservation agriculture (CA), defined as minimal soil disturbance, year-round ground cover, and crop rotations, is being promoted as a way to sustainably improve water-use efficiency, reduce soil erosion, and boost crop production. In this study, three cropping systems – continuous no-till maize, CA rotation, and conventional tillage rotation – were established on smallholder farms in the Nkhotakota and Dowa districts, two distinct agroecological zones in Malawi. Three-year crop rotations of cassava, cowpea, and maize and cassava, soybean, and maize were implemented in CA and conventional tillage, respectively, in Nkhotakota. In Dowa, a 3-year rotation of sweet potato, bean, and maize was implemented in both CA and conventional tillage. Cropping systems were analyzed for their impact on infiltration, soil moisture content, sediment runoff, earthworm and termite abundance, and crop production from 2011 to 2014. In Nkhotakota, which had high potential evapotranspiration and low soil water-holding capacity, residue retention was positively correlated with infiltration and no-till and CA increased soil water content (0–60 cm) compared to conventional tillage by an average of 20 mm. In Dowa, which had lower potential evapotranspiration, eliminating tillage and retaining residue did not improve infiltration or soil water content. In 2013/2014, no-till and CA reduced sediment runoff by 1537 kg ha1 and 1309 kg ha1 in Nkhotakota and 346 kg ha1 and 209 kg ha1 in Dowa, respectively, compared to conventional tillage. Tillage and residue management did not have a significant impact on sweet potato, cassava, bean, soybean, or cowpea production. Crop rotations had the greatest impact on maize yields in 2013/14, with CA and conventional tillage rotations increasing maize yields compared to no-till maize by 2525 kg ha1 and 2145 kg ha1 in Dowa and 1364 kg ha1 and 469 kg ha1 in Nkhotakota, respectively. However, cumulative protein production was greater in no-till than CA and conventional tillage rotations in Dowa and greater than conventional rotations in Nkhotakota. Rotation crop productivity needs to be improved with better yielding grain legumes and other higher protein crops before widespread adoption of diverse rotations can occur on smallholder farms in eastern and southern Africa.
536 _aConservation Agriculture Program
546 _aText in english
594 _aINT2939
650 7 _91248
_aRotational cropping
650 7 _91269
_aSoil properties
650 7 _aConservation agriculture
_92619
700 1 _91675
_aCarpenter-Boggs, L.
700 1 _91676
_aReganold, J.P.
700 1 _9877
_aThierfelder, C.
_gSustainable Intensification Program
_8INT2939
773 0 _w444470
_x0167-8809
_dAmsterdam (Netherlands) : Elsevier
_tAgriculture, Ecosystems and Environment
_gv. 212, p. 285-296
856 4 _yAccess only for CIMMYT Staff
_uhttp://46.20.115.203/Download/cis/56994.pdf
942 _2ddc
_cJA
999 _c56994
_d56986