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Economics of wheat production in Central Asia

By: Centro Internacional de Mejoramiento de Maiz y Trigo (CIMMYT) | Morgounov, A.I.
Contributor(s): Bedoshvili, D [ed.].
Material type: materialTypeLabelBookAnalytics: Show analyticsPublisher: Tbilisi (Georgia) CIMMYT : 2004Description: p. 424-426.Subject(s): Asia | Crop yield | Cultivation | Disease resistance | Irrigated farming | Seed production | Wheat | CIMMYT | Food security | Plant breeding AGROVOCSummary: Crop production in Central Asia has long history going back to 2000-3000 years BC. The farming in the past was mainly concentrated in irrigated areas along the two main river basins : Amu Darya and Syr-Darya. Wheat cultivation in Central Asia in the 20th century concentrated primarily in the rainfed area. The breeding work conducted at several stations in the region was initially based on local landraces and resulted in adapted varieties. However, the breeding work was not consistent and was interrupted. Since 1991 the wheat became an important crop due to food security concern and replaced cotton in some areas. The modern varieties developed in the region are well adapted and combine yield potential, grain quality and disease resistance. At the same time a number of foreign varieties from Mexico, Russia, Turkey, USA and other countries are cultivated in the region. The international cooperation with centers like CIMMYT and ICARDA resulted in the establishment of international network of researchers sharing the germplasm, knowledge and experience. New jointly developed varieties are being officially tested and some already reached the farmers. The general statistical figures are given in the Table 1. The current wheat acreage is presented in the Table 2. Kazakhstan grows roughly 10 mln of rainfed spring planted spring wheat in the North with average yield of 1-1.5 t/ha. The rest of the region grows winter wheat primarily irrigated. Kazakhstan annual production surplus varies between 5- 7 mln tons which are exported outside. The main importers of Kazakh grain are Central Asian countries especially Tajikistan, Caucasus (Azerbaijan and Georgia), Russia and Ukraine (in 2003), Iran, Middle East and Europe. Since 2003 the government provides substantial subsidies to wheat growers through support of the seed, fertilizer and crop protection. Credits are available as well as future contracts for grain with the government food corporation. The main grain producers in the Northern Kazakhstan are big grain companies controlling up to 150,000 ha which consolidates not only farms but the grain silos and processing as well. Medium size cooperatives ( 1000- 3000 ha) dominate production in the Southern part. Wheat production in Kyrgyzstan is concentrated in the irrigated Chu valley near Bishkek and in Osh region which is part of irrigated Fergana valley. The grain demand in the country has not been met yet and some grain is still imported. The majority of the producers are small holders using their privatized land. Several state seed farms were left in the country unprivatized. Limited if any support is given to producers. The area planted and the grain prices are market driven. The government through the consortium of donors established the only in the region extension system with rural consultants pre- sent in all administrative counties. Wheat in Tajikistan replaced substantial part of cotton in the 1990s due to food security concern. The current government policy is to strictly control and plan cotton production. The planned figures delivered to all administrative counties and further to all producers. Once the cotton area is defined the wheat, which follows cotton, suffer because the producers release the land very late for planting which might occur even in January. This conflict is a major constraint for wheat growing. The production structure is dominated by families who rent the land to grow wheat for own consumption. Though remarkable progress in production has been reached the country still imports large quantities of grain. Wheat production is not supported by the govemment. Limited information is available on wheat production in Turkmenistan. There is high degree of government control over wheat area with some support by inputs. The grain prices are regulated. The producers are mainly big farms which remained from the past. Uzbekistan made tremendous progress reaching the target production of 5 mln tones to satisfy its needs. Wheat is included in the list of crops which are produced according to the government plan. The area and the yield are planned and the inputs (seed, fertilizer, chemicals) are provided. The govemment buys the planned amount of grain at a fixed price and then the balance is made to exclude the cost of inputs. The remaining grain (10-20%) is marketable. The prices and costs are artificial and do not represent the market values. The producers mostly are medium or large cooperatives though some land allocation to private farmers started.Collection: CIMMYT Staff Publications Collection
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Abstract only

Crop production in Central Asia has long history going back to 2000-3000 years BC. The farming in the past was mainly concentrated in irrigated areas along the two main river basins : Amu Darya and Syr-Darya. Wheat cultivation in Central Asia in the 20th century concentrated primarily in the rainfed area. The breeding work conducted at several stations in the region was initially based on local landraces and resulted in adapted varieties. However, the breeding work was not consistent and was interrupted. Since 1991 the wheat became an important crop due to food security concern and replaced cotton in some areas. The modern varieties developed in the region are well adapted and combine yield potential, grain quality and disease resistance. At the same time a number of foreign varieties from Mexico, Russia, Turkey, USA and other countries are cultivated in the region. The international cooperation with centers like CIMMYT and ICARDA resulted in the establishment of international network of researchers sharing the germplasm, knowledge and experience. New jointly developed varieties are being officially tested and some already reached the farmers. The general statistical figures are given in the Table 1. The current wheat acreage is presented in the Table 2. Kazakhstan grows roughly 10 mln of rainfed spring planted spring wheat in the North with average yield of 1-1.5 t/ha. The rest of the region grows winter wheat primarily irrigated. Kazakhstan annual production surplus varies between 5- 7 mln tons which are exported outside. The main importers of Kazakh grain are Central Asian countries especially Tajikistan, Caucasus (Azerbaijan and Georgia), Russia and Ukraine (in 2003), Iran, Middle East and Europe. Since 2003 the government provides substantial subsidies to wheat growers through support of the seed, fertilizer and crop protection. Credits are available as well as future contracts for grain with the government food corporation. The main grain producers in the Northern Kazakhstan are big grain companies controlling up to 150,000 ha which consolidates not only farms but the grain silos and processing as well. Medium size cooperatives ( 1000- 3000 ha) dominate production in the Southern part. Wheat production in Kyrgyzstan is concentrated in the irrigated Chu valley near Bishkek and in Osh region which is part of irrigated Fergana valley. The grain demand in the country has not been met yet and some grain is still imported. The majority of the producers are small holders using their privatized land. Several state seed farms were left in the country unprivatized. Limited if any support is given to producers. The area planted and the grain prices are market driven. The government through the consortium of donors established the only in the region extension system with rural consultants pre- sent in all administrative counties. Wheat in Tajikistan replaced substantial part of cotton in the 1990s due to food security concern. The current government policy is to strictly control and plan cotton production. The planned figures delivered to all administrative counties and further to all producers. Once the cotton area is defined the wheat, which follows cotton, suffer because the producers release the land very late for planting which might occur even in January. This conflict is a major constraint for wheat growing. The production structure is dominated by families who rent the land to grow wheat for own consumption. Though remarkable progress in production has been reached the country still imports large quantities of grain. Wheat production is not supported by the govemment. Limited information is available on wheat production in Turkmenistan. There is high degree of government control over wheat area with some support by inputs. The grain prices are regulated. The producers are mainly big farms which remained from the past. Uzbekistan made tremendous progress reaching the target production of 5 mln tones to satisfy its needs. Wheat is included in the list of crops which are produced according to the government plan. The area and the yield are planned and the inputs (seed, fertilizer, chemicals) are provided. The govemment buys the planned amount of grain at a fixed price and then the balance is made to exclude the cost of inputs. The remaining grain (10-20%) is marketable. The prices and costs are artificial and do not represent the market values. The producers mostly are medium or large cooperatives though some land allocation to private farmers started.

Global Wheat Program

English

0409|AGRIS 0401|AL-Wheat Program

Juan Carlos Mendieta

INT1787

CIMMYT Staff Publications Collection

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