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Major pests of food legumes and their control in Armenia

By: Terlemezyan, H.L | Centro Internacional de Mejoramiento de Maiz y Trigo (CIMMYT) | Tbilisi (Georgia) 14-17 Jun 2004.
Contributor(s): Bedoshvili, D [ed.] | Davtyan, S.A [coaut.].
Material type: materialTypeLabelBookAnalytics: Show analyticsPublisher: Tbilisi (Georgia) CIMMYT : 2004Description: p. 406-407.Subject(s): Armenia | Cultivated land | Environmental conditions | Food additives | Legumes AGROVOC | Pest control | Protein content | Soil chemistry and physics | Vegetables | CIMMYTDDC classification: 633.1147 Summary: Vegetable growing is one of the leading branches of Armenian agriculture. Food legumes occupy an important place among other vegetable crops. The major food legumes cultivated in Annenia include beans, pea, lentil and chickpea. Beanranks first among the above crops according to the occupied area. Soil and climatic conditions of our republic are quite favorable for growing these crops that are valuable by their qualitative and taste properties. They contain proteins, vitamins and other useful substances, amino acids, which are absent in animal products. However, the essential factor reducing yield and quality of food legumes is the harmful activity of many species of insect pests, among which the most harmful are the bean aphid, red spider mite and the bean-seed beetle. Upon mass invasion of food legumes with mites and aphids, plants slow the growth and development, often dry out completely. The action of bean-seed beetle severely affects the grain quality. Bean aphid -is a rather large (4.0-4.5 mm) aphid of light green color with long legs. In the development cycle, there are pterygota and apterygota forms. It is widespread in all legume- growing regions of Armenia. Pest's eggs over- winter. Aphid females lay eggs in autumn on the radical parts of perennial legume plant stem. Larvae emerge in May and start to feed on the plant juice. Some time later winged females emerge and fly over to annual legume crops where they form new colonies parthogenetically, and develop there during 5 to 15 generations. In the end of summer, winged females re-emerge on the secondary host plants and fly over to perennial plants to lay eggs there. As a result, the damaged leaves are rolled, badly developed and their grain yield being significantly reduced. Red spider mite -a small sucking pest. Body is oval, green-yellow, orange-red in over-wintering females. Mites live and feed generally on the lower side of leaves, spinning a thin web around. Infested leaves are liable to form small dots resembling pinpricks. Eventually, the leaf acquires a marble tinting, becomes yellow or brown and dries out. Upon serious damage the entire plant may perish. Females over-winter under plant residues and soils lumps. During vegetation, lO to 16 generations use to develop on legume crops. Bean or sovbean-seed beetle -a 4.5-5.0 mm long beetle; larva -5.0-6.0 mm long of creamy coloring, without legs with a little brown head. Beetles over-winterin granaries or on the grains spilled during harvest.In spring, the beetles appear from the grains at a temperature of 20-22 °C. The beetles feed on pollen of various blooming plants, f1ying then over to bean and other food legume crops. There the female lays eggs on bean valves. Larvae hatch from eggs, gnaw through bean walls and penetrate into unripe grains. There the larva eats away a big round chamber, where it pupates and, eventually, beetles emerge from the pupa. One female lays up to 114 eggs, In the course of year, the pest develops in several generations. Prevention and control. Plant food legumes at early dates. In the spring, remove weeds from the field and cut down perennial legume crops on plots and nearby to eliminate aphid eggs. Submerge the seeding material in a sodium chloride (table salt) solution. The immersed grains with beetles inside will rise to the surface and can be easily removed. Carefu1ly harvest the crop without leaving grain on the ground. Once the harvest is over, dig over the ground again for burying the lost grain. Beetles are unable to come to the surface from the depth of lO cm and over. Where necessary, at the plant flowering stage spray plants with Fastak pesticide at the rate 1 ml of pesticide/10 1 of water. Upon occurrence of aphids and mites, treat the plants with an infusion of onion or garlic peels (200 g of peels/ 101 of water) or dandelion leaves.Collection: CIMMYT Publications Collection
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Conference proceedings CIMMYT Knowledge Center: John Woolston Library

Lic. Jose Juan Caballero Flores

 

CIMMYT Publications Collection 633.1147 BED (Browse shelf) 1 Available 6U630072
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Abstract only

Vegetable growing is one of the leading branches of Armenian agriculture. Food legumes occupy an important place among other vegetable crops. The major food legumes cultivated in Annenia include beans, pea, lentil and chickpea. Beanranks first among the above crops according to the occupied area. Soil and climatic conditions of our republic are quite favorable for growing these crops that are valuable by their qualitative and taste properties. They contain proteins, vitamins and other useful substances, amino acids, which are absent in animal products. However, the essential factor reducing yield and quality of food legumes is the harmful activity of many species of insect pests, among which the most harmful are the bean aphid, red spider mite and the bean-seed beetle. Upon mass invasion of food legumes with mites and aphids, plants slow the growth and development, often dry out completely. The action of bean-seed beetle severely affects the grain quality. Bean aphid -is a rather large (4.0-4.5 mm) aphid of light green color with long legs. In the development cycle, there are pterygota and apterygota forms. It is widespread in all legume- growing regions of Armenia. Pest's eggs over- winter. Aphid females lay eggs in autumn on the radical parts of perennial legume plant stem. Larvae emerge in May and start to feed on the plant juice. Some time later winged females emerge and fly over to annual legume crops where they form new colonies parthogenetically, and develop there during 5 to 15 generations. In the end of summer, winged females re-emerge on the secondary host plants and fly over to perennial plants to lay eggs there. As a result, the damaged leaves are rolled, badly developed and their grain yield being significantly reduced. Red spider mite -a small sucking pest. Body is oval, green-yellow, orange-red in over-wintering females. Mites live and feed generally on the lower side of leaves, spinning a thin web around. Infested leaves are liable to form small dots resembling pinpricks. Eventually, the leaf acquires a marble tinting, becomes yellow or brown and dries out. Upon serious damage the entire plant may perish. Females over-winter under plant residues and soils lumps. During vegetation, lO to 16 generations use to develop on legume crops. Bean or sovbean-seed beetle -a 4.5-5.0 mm long beetle; larva -5.0-6.0 mm long of creamy coloring, without legs with a little brown head. Beetles over-winterin granaries or on the grains spilled during harvest.In spring, the beetles appear from the grains at a temperature of 20-22 °C. The beetles feed on pollen of various blooming plants, f1ying then over to bean and other food legume crops. There the female lays eggs on bean valves. Larvae hatch from eggs, gnaw through bean walls and penetrate into unripe grains. There the larva eats away a big round chamber, where it pupates and, eventually, beetles emerge from the pupa. One female lays up to 114 eggs, In the course of year, the pest develops in several generations. Prevention and control. Plant food legumes at early dates. In the spring, remove weeds from the field and cut down perennial legume crops on plots and nearby to eliminate aphid eggs. Submerge the seeding material in a sodium chloride (table salt) solution. The immersed grains with beetles inside will rise to the surface and can be easily removed. Carefu1ly harvest the crop without leaving grain on the ground. Once the harvest is over, dig over the ground again for burying the lost grain. Beetles are unable to come to the surface from the depth of lO cm and over. Where necessary, at the plant flowering stage spray plants with Fastak pesticide at the rate 1 ml of pesticide/10 1 of water. Upon occurrence of aphids and mites, treat the plants with an infusion of onion or garlic peels (200 g of peels/ 101 of water) or dandelion leaves.

English

0409|AGRIS 0401|AL-Wheat Program

Juan Carlos Mendieta

CIMMYT Publications Collection

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