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Biomorphological change caused by influence of heavy metals on maize lines and hybrids grown in different environments of Georgia

By: Mamulashvili, L | Centro Internacional de Mejoramiento de Maiz y Trigo (CIMMYT) | Tbilisi (Georgia) 14-17 Jun 2004.
Contributor(s): Bedoshvili, D [ed.].
Material type: materialTypeLabelBookAnalytics: Show analyticsPublisher: Tbilisi (Georgia) CIMMYT : 2004Description: p. 375-376.Subject(s): Environmental conditions | Food production | Food stocks | Georgia | Hybrid proteins | Irrigation | Maize | Morphogenesis | Mutation | Pollution | Soil chemistry | Water | CIMMYTDDC classification: 633.1147 Summary: Nowadays equally important are the issues of resolution of food stock problems and production of ecologically pure food products as many human diseases are caused by consumption of polluted food. Investigations proved that high concentrations of heavy metals cause genetic mutations in live organisms and frequently are even a cause of death. Mutagenetic effects are not completely investigated. So we consider our research to be extremely es- sential. The research was aimed at investigation of the following two issues: 1. Using high-heterosis hy- brids (Georgian 9, Enguri) we developed the lines of the second cycle, valuable for further breeding. On the basis of these lines we received highly productive simple inbred-hybrid, line-variety and variety-line hybrids, monitoring and testing of which we still continue. 2. We have investigated and continue to study biomorphological changes, which can be caused by the effect of heavy metals on the lines and their hybrids we have developed during our research. The research was carried out in two drastical1y different environmental conditions in two regions of Georgia: 1. In rather non-polluted Mtskheta region, on Muhran-Saguramo plain where the content of heavy metals in soil and irrigational water does not exceed maximum permissible concentration (MPC); 2. In Bolnisi region, in Khatissopeli village in soil of my own land estate contents of ten metals: Cu, Cd, Pb, Co, Zn, Mn, Sr, Ni, Fe and Li were investigated. Content of Cd appeared to be 2,8 times higher than the maximum permissible concentration. Contents of Mn, Cu, Co, Zn and Ni were found to be 1.1, 8,3.8, 1.5 and 3 times higher, respectively. In irrigation waters contents of Cd, Mn, Pb exceeded the maximum permissible concentration: 41, 8.3 and 14 times respectively. In potable water content of Cd and Mn exceeded maximum permissible concentration. 29 and 1.6 times, respectively. The observed environmental anomalies in Bolnisi district are mainly caused by functioning of Madneuli Mining Complex exploring the cooper- pyrite deposits. Increased content of heavy metals in irrigation waters is the direct consequence of the contamination of the river Mashavera, which is the source of irrigation waters of the district. The river Mashavera, at its turn, col1ects waters of the rivers Kazretela, Ukangori etc., polluted with the manufacturing waters of Madneuli industrial complex and its open-cast mines. Distinction between the maize lines and hybrids developed in Bolnisi and Mtskheta regions is very significant. They are quite different as in phenotype so in genotype. Namely, cytogenetic investigation of Bolnisi lines has identified increased and strongly expressed chromosomal aberrations presented by the anaphase and telophase bridges, chromosomal circles, acentric fragments, chromosomal agglomeration and aneuploidy. The analysis of water-soluble proteins of maize grains detected the protein spectrum differences in samples taken in Bolnisi and Mtskheta regions. These differences undoubtedly indicate the modification of the genetic constitution of proteins. The modified characteristics of pollen grains (the length, width and diameter) of the male gametophyte, ascertained at testing, show the tolerance to the heavy metal pollution. Phenotype changes were also noted: the vegetation period in the lines developed in Bolnisi region was prolonged by 5- 7 days. Between the generations J0' J1, J2, J3 etc. depression was less noticeable than in the check variant. Namely, the plant height, the number of leaves and intemodes overbalance that of the check variant. However, in Bolnisi variant chlorosis of leaves was frequently encountered. Instead of development of the male organ -a tassel, female organ -an ear was frequently developed. In hybrids the picture was absolutely different. Heterosis in Mtskheta region was manifested at its full extent, while in Bolnisi region the rate of heterosis was 30-45 % lower. Based on the above described data we conclude, that under the effect of heavy metals: 1. Depression in generations of lines developed in Bolnisi region progresses more poorly as compared to the check. 2. Heterosis in the hybrids developed in Bolnisi region is 30-45% weaker in comparison with the hybrids of Mtskheta region. 3. The male gametophyte pollen grain has shown tolerance to heavy metals. 4. At the comparative analyses of water soluble protein samples drawn in Bolnisi and Mtskheta regions the differences were detected 5. Cytogenetic tests showed increase of the frequency of chromosome aberrations in the meristem cells of Bolnisi lines in comparison to the check. 6. The level of heavy metal pollution of ecosystems of Bolnisi region was detennined.Collection: CIMMYT Publications Collection
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Conference proceedings CIMMYT Knowledge Center: John Woolston Library

Lic. Jose Juan Caballero Flores

 

CIMMYT Publications Collection 633.1147 BED (Browse shelf) 1 Available 5L630072
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Abstract only

Nowadays equally important are the issues of resolution of food stock problems and production of ecologically pure food products as many human diseases are caused by consumption of polluted food. Investigations proved that high concentrations of heavy metals cause genetic mutations in live organisms and frequently are even a cause of death. Mutagenetic effects are not completely investigated. So we consider our research to be extremely es- sential. The research was aimed at investigation of the following two issues: 1. Using high-heterosis hy- brids (Georgian 9, Enguri) we developed the lines of the second cycle, valuable for further breeding. On the basis of these lines we received highly productive simple inbred-hybrid, line-variety and variety-line hybrids, monitoring and testing of which we still continue. 2. We have investigated and continue to study biomorphological changes, which can be caused by the effect of heavy metals on the lines and their hybrids we have developed during our research. The research was carried out in two drastical1y different environmental conditions in two regions of Georgia: 1. In rather non-polluted Mtskheta region, on Muhran-Saguramo plain where the content of heavy metals in soil and irrigational water does not exceed maximum permissible concentration (MPC); 2. In Bolnisi region, in Khatissopeli village in soil of my own land estate contents of ten metals: Cu, Cd, Pb, Co, Zn, Mn, Sr, Ni, Fe and Li were investigated. Content of Cd appeared to be 2,8 times higher than the maximum permissible concentration. Contents of Mn, Cu, Co, Zn and Ni were found to be 1.1, 8,3.8, 1.5 and 3 times higher, respectively. In irrigation waters contents of Cd, Mn, Pb exceeded the maximum permissible concentration: 41, 8.3 and 14 times respectively. In potable water content of Cd and Mn exceeded maximum permissible concentration. 29 and 1.6 times, respectively. The observed environmental anomalies in Bolnisi district are mainly caused by functioning of Madneuli Mining Complex exploring the cooper- pyrite deposits. Increased content of heavy metals in irrigation waters is the direct consequence of the contamination of the river Mashavera, which is the source of irrigation waters of the district. The river Mashavera, at its turn, col1ects waters of the rivers Kazretela, Ukangori etc., polluted with the manufacturing waters of Madneuli industrial complex and its open-cast mines. Distinction between the maize lines and hybrids developed in Bolnisi and Mtskheta regions is very significant. They are quite different as in phenotype so in genotype. Namely, cytogenetic investigation of Bolnisi lines has identified increased and strongly expressed chromosomal aberrations presented by the anaphase and telophase bridges, chromosomal circles, acentric fragments, chromosomal agglomeration and aneuploidy. The analysis of water-soluble proteins of maize grains detected the protein spectrum differences in samples taken in Bolnisi and Mtskheta regions. These differences undoubtedly indicate the modification of the genetic constitution of proteins. The modified characteristics of pollen grains (the length, width and diameter) of the male gametophyte, ascertained at testing, show the tolerance to the heavy metal pollution. Phenotype changes were also noted: the vegetation period in the lines developed in Bolnisi region was prolonged by 5- 7 days. Between the generations J0' J1, J2, J3 etc. depression was less noticeable than in the check variant. Namely, the plant height, the number of leaves and intemodes overbalance that of the check variant. However, in Bolnisi variant chlorosis of leaves was frequently encountered. Instead of development of the male organ -a tassel, female organ -an ear was frequently developed. In hybrids the picture was absolutely different. Heterosis in Mtskheta region was manifested at its full extent, while in Bolnisi region the rate of heterosis was 30-45 % lower. Based on the above described data we conclude, that under the effect of heavy metals: 1. Depression in generations of lines developed in Bolnisi region progresses more poorly as compared to the check. 2. Heterosis in the hybrids developed in Bolnisi region is 30-45% weaker in comparison with the hybrids of Mtskheta region. 3. The male gametophyte pollen grain has shown tolerance to heavy metals. 4. At the comparative analyses of water soluble protein samples drawn in Bolnisi and Mtskheta regions the differences were detected 5. Cytogenetic tests showed increase of the frequency of chromosome aberrations in the meristem cells of Bolnisi lines in comparison to the check. 6. The level of heavy metal pollution of ecosystems of Bolnisi region was detennined.

English

0409|AGRIS 0401|AL-Maize Program

Juan Carlos Mendieta

CIMMYT Publications Collection

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