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Testing of sweet corn hybrids in Armenia

By: Gyulkhasyan, M.A | Centro Internacional de Mejoramiento de Maiz y Trigo (CIMMYT) | Tbilisi (Georgia) 14-17 Jun 2004.
Contributor(s): Avagyan, V.A [coaut.] | Bedoshvili, D [ed.].
Material type: materialTypeLabelBookAnalytics: Show analyticsPublisher: Tbilisi (Georgia) CIMMYT : 2004Description: p. 371-372.Subject(s): Cereal crops | Cultivation | Ecosystems | Environmental conditions | Harvesting | Maize | Quality | Sweetcorn | CIMMYT | Zea mays AGROVOC | Hybrids AGROVOCDDC classification: 633.1147 Summary: Sugar maize (Zea mays L. sacharata) is a new crop for Armenia. For the first time sugar maize varieties were tested in Armenia in the sixties. However, despite positive results, sugar maize did not become widely cultivated in Armenia. Lately, the arable land-use structure under irrigated conditions of Ararat valley and other foothill areas of Armenia has altered through expansion of grain cereals in response to the market situation changes and the challenges of country self-reliance in provision of grain. The existing situation cannot but affect incomes of local farmers and is liable to increased environmental risks within agricultural ecosystems. Thirteen hybrids of sweet maize with days to industrial maturity (the end of the milk stage) of 65- 85 have been tested for the purpose of introducing them into agricultural practice. The experimental and commercial fields in two zones (lowland and uphill) amounted to 0.1 ha and 4.5 ha in 2000 and 2001, respectively. Summer planting was carried out after harvesting of early potatoes and winter wheat, beginning from 15-20 July. Sugar maize is more hydrophilous than other cereal crops and is distinguished with increased response to irrigation, especially in the critical period, which is 10 days prior to ear formation and lasts for about 30 days. Through regular observations over the growth and development of plants the time of reaching the end of the wax and the beginning of the milk stages was determined, which occurs 18-20 days after emergence of pistil fibers in 50% of the ears. The industrial maturity of ears, depending on genotype and weather conditions, lasts for 3 to 4 days. A delay in harvesting of ears even for a day severely affects grain quality due to a reduction in sugar content. The first harvests were carried out from 18 to 20 August. Summer planted crop harvest began on September 28 and lasted until 5 October. The average number of full-value ears per plant made from 1.3 to 1.5, the average weight of ears being 270 to 310 g, the ear length being 17-20 cm, the number of kernels per year being 570- 750. Yield of the early maturing varieties were inferior to that of the intermediate varieties. At the industrial grain maturity stage, the plant height among the hybrids varied between 160 and 190 cm, while the number of leaves on the main stem ranged from 14 to 19. Under the Ararat valley conditions, summer planting of sugar maize results in late ear harvest dates. In such case, the vegetation period shortens and yield is normally reduced. However, taste properties of grain improve because grains contain more sugars and less starch. They are characterized by tender coating and a longer period of industrial ripeness. As compared to other crops, summer planted sugar maize is a source of additional income due to its shorter vegetation period and early maturity. Tested sugar maize hybrids have ensured high economic effect. In the phase of industrial maturity, grain was subjected to biochemical analysis. The content of dry matters in the fresh grain material by varieties varied as follows: monosaccharides -2.6- 3.0%, disaccharides-l.6-2.6%, and starch-15.2- 23.1 %. The most cost-effective hybrids have been selected for further cultivation. The cultivation of sweet maize both in lowland and foothill suburban areas will increase revenues of the subsistence farms located there, inasmuch as in the lowland area it may be cultivated as a second crop. Under irrigated Ararat valley conditions, sugar maize has good prospects for both fresh consumption and canning. The obtained trial results provided evidence that the mid-maturing Lancelet, Merlin and Wombat hybrids can be recommended for cultivation in the lowland area, while the mid-early hybrids Spring, Candy quick and Starshif can be recommended for cultivation in the foothill area and for summer sowing in the lowland area.Collection: CIMMYT Publications Collection
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Conference proceedings CIMMYT Knowledge Center: John Woolston Library

Lic. Jose Juan Caballero Flores

 

CIMMYT Publications Collection 633.1147 BED (Browse shelf) 1 Available 5G630072
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Abstract only

Sugar maize (Zea mays L. sacharata) is a new crop for Armenia. For the first time sugar maize varieties were tested in Armenia in the sixties. However, despite positive results, sugar maize did not become widely cultivated in Armenia. Lately, the arable land-use structure under irrigated conditions of Ararat valley and other foothill areas of Armenia has altered through expansion of grain cereals in response to the market situation changes and the challenges of country self-reliance in provision of grain. The existing situation cannot but affect incomes of local farmers and is liable to increased environmental risks within agricultural ecosystems. Thirteen hybrids of sweet maize with days to industrial maturity (the end of the milk stage) of 65- 85 have been tested for the purpose of introducing them into agricultural practice. The experimental and commercial fields in two zones (lowland and uphill) amounted to 0.1 ha and 4.5 ha in 2000 and 2001, respectively. Summer planting was carried out after harvesting of early potatoes and winter wheat, beginning from 15-20 July. Sugar maize is more hydrophilous than other cereal crops and is distinguished with increased response to irrigation, especially in the critical period, which is 10 days prior to ear formation and lasts for about 30 days. Through regular observations over the growth and development of plants the time of reaching the end of the wax and the beginning of the milk stages was determined, which occurs 18-20 days after emergence of pistil fibers in 50% of the ears. The industrial maturity of ears, depending on genotype and weather conditions, lasts for 3 to 4 days. A delay in harvesting of ears even for a day severely affects grain quality due to a reduction in sugar content. The first harvests were carried out from 18 to 20 August. Summer planted crop harvest began on September 28 and lasted until 5 October. The average number of full-value ears per plant made from 1.3 to 1.5, the average weight of ears being 270 to 310 g, the ear length being 17-20 cm, the number of kernels per year being 570- 750. Yield of the early maturing varieties were inferior to that of the intermediate varieties. At the industrial grain maturity stage, the plant height among the hybrids varied between 160 and 190 cm, while the number of leaves on the main stem ranged from 14 to 19. Under the Ararat valley conditions, summer planting of sugar maize results in late ear harvest dates. In such case, the vegetation period shortens and yield is normally reduced. However, taste properties of grain improve because grains contain more sugars and less starch. They are characterized by tender coating and a longer period of industrial ripeness. As compared to other crops, summer planted sugar maize is a source of additional income due to its shorter vegetation period and early maturity. Tested sugar maize hybrids have ensured high economic effect. In the phase of industrial maturity, grain was subjected to biochemical analysis. The content of dry matters in the fresh grain material by varieties varied as follows: monosaccharides -2.6- 3.0%, disaccharides-l.6-2.6%, and starch-15.2- 23.1 %. The most cost-effective hybrids have been selected for further cultivation. The cultivation of sweet maize both in lowland and foothill suburban areas will increase revenues of the subsistence farms located there, inasmuch as in the lowland area it may be cultivated as a second crop. Under irrigated Ararat valley conditions, sugar maize has good prospects for both fresh consumption and canning. The obtained trial results provided evidence that the mid-maturing Lancelet, Merlin and Wombat hybrids can be recommended for cultivation in the lowland area, while the mid-early hybrids Spring, Candy quick and Starshif can be recommended for cultivation in the foothill area and for summer sowing in the lowland area.

English

0409|AGRIS 0401|AL-Maize Program

Juan Carlos Mendieta

CIMMYT Publications Collection

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