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Improvement of local populations of flint maize

By: Avagyan, V.A | Centro Internacional de Mejoramiento de Maiz y Trigo (CIMMYT) | Tbilisi (Georgia) 14-17 Jun 2004.
Contributor(s): Bedoshvili, D [ed.].
Material type: materialTypeLabelBookAnalytics: Show analyticsPublisher: Tbilisi (Georgia) CIMMYT : 2004Description: p. 363-364.Subject(s): Armenia | Crop husbandry | Disease resistance | Lowland | Maize | Rainfed farming | Small farms | Soil cultivation | Sowing AGROVOC | CIMMYT | Zea mays AGROVOC | Plant breeding AGROVOCDDC classification: 633.1147 Summary: Maize occupies substantial area in the northeastern agricultural zone of Armenia, where the crop is cultivated under the rainfed conditions. Irrigated lands of the plain are occupied by vineyards, orchards, vegetable and melon fields, where maize is also successfully cultivated as an inter-row crop. Following land privatization, the area sown to maize in the given zone increased two fold. This is associated with a lesser risk in terms of obtaining sustainable annual yield as compared to winter cereals, especially in unfavorable years -a frequent event lately. Under such conditions, the cultivation of maize for the farms has become economically more feasible than the cultivation of small grain crops. The foothill zone ( 1000-1500 m above sea level) is also favorable for maize cultivation. It should be noted that as maize is a good predecessor for winter wheat, its cultivation on large plots could partially contribute to enhancement of crop rotation. Maize cultivation in small farms is also feasible due to the fact that the crop, as compared with smoll grain crops, does not require heavy employment of machinery, except for the soil cultivation, and the major part of the work, particularly harvesting, can be managed by a farmer's family. No less significant is the availability of a stable market where maize can be sold. As a result of long-term cultivation of maize in the zone, under the impact of the natural environmental pressure and farmer breeding a local population of the crop has been formed. Flint maize (Zea mays L.durata) is considered to be a traditional crop in the lowland sub-zone of the northeastern agricultural zone. It is distinguished by its drought and cold tolerance it is resistant to diseases and less demanding for growing conditions. The crop is early maturing, with round and white grains. Based on the study of development of the local maize populations it was found that the lower nodes of the stem produce side shoots, which weaken the development of maize ear, especially during the unfavorable dry seasons. During favorable years and at excessive nutrition and moisture, side shoots produce undeveloped ears, which do not increase significantly total grain yield. We have set ourselves an objective to develop from the local flint maize population a new variety adapted to the local conditions and preserving its positive traits through generation of recombinant and mutagenic variability. To achieve the objective, crosses between local population ( <+> ) and simple interlinear hybrid Slava (d ) were made and the produced hybrid seeds (F1) were treated by X-rays at the rate of 10 gr. As a result of a multiple selections based on phenology and yield characteristics (yield potential, low-tillering, etc.), a new variety Ani has been developed. The variety is of intermediate maturity (120 days), with yellow grain of the semi-dent type and glassy endosperm. The new variety is relatively drought tolerant, which is conditioned by the following features: average height plant, comparatively short leaves, and non-dense leafage. Its branched and deep root system also provides for increased drought tolerance. Under conditions of Armenia, such varieties are adapted to utilizing rainfall in the second half of summer and partly in autumn. As a result, Ani accumulates a large amount of organic weight. In many subsistence farms of the northeastern area of Armenia grain yield of Ani is as high as 6- 7 t/ha, which exceeds yield of the parental forms by 20-25%.Collection: CIMMYT Publications Collection
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Conference proceedings CIMMYT Knowledge Center: John Woolston Library

Lic. Jose Juan Caballero Flores

 

CIMMYT Publications Collection 633.1147 BED (Browse shelf) 1 Available 4W630072
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Abstract only

Maize occupies substantial area in the northeastern agricultural zone of Armenia, where the crop is cultivated under the rainfed conditions. Irrigated lands of the plain are occupied by vineyards, orchards, vegetable and melon fields, where maize is also successfully cultivated as an inter-row crop. Following land privatization, the area sown to maize in the given zone increased two fold. This is associated with a lesser risk in terms of obtaining sustainable annual yield as compared to winter cereals, especially in unfavorable years -a frequent event lately. Under such conditions, the cultivation of maize for the farms has become economically more feasible than the cultivation of small grain crops. The foothill zone ( 1000-1500 m above sea level) is also favorable for maize cultivation. It should be noted that as maize is a good predecessor for winter wheat, its cultivation on large plots could partially contribute to enhancement of crop rotation. Maize cultivation in small farms is also feasible due to the fact that the crop, as compared with smoll grain crops, does not require heavy employment of machinery, except for the soil cultivation, and the major part of the work, particularly harvesting, can be managed by a farmer's family. No less significant is the availability of a stable market where maize can be sold. As a result of long-term cultivation of maize in the zone, under the impact of the natural environmental pressure and farmer breeding a local population of the crop has been formed. Flint maize (Zea mays L.durata) is considered to be a traditional crop in the lowland sub-zone of the northeastern agricultural zone. It is distinguished by its drought and cold tolerance it is resistant to diseases and less demanding for growing conditions. The crop is early maturing, with round and white grains. Based on the study of development of the local maize populations it was found that the lower nodes of the stem produce side shoots, which weaken the development of maize ear, especially during the unfavorable dry seasons. During favorable years and at excessive nutrition and moisture, side shoots produce undeveloped ears, which do not increase significantly total grain yield. We have set ourselves an objective to develop from the local flint maize population a new variety adapted to the local conditions and preserving its positive traits through generation of recombinant and mutagenic variability. To achieve the objective, crosses between local population ( <+> ) and simple interlinear hybrid Slava (d ) were made and the produced hybrid seeds (F1) were treated by X-rays at the rate of 10 gr. As a result of a multiple selections based on phenology and yield characteristics (yield potential, low-tillering, etc.), a new variety Ani has been developed. The variety is of intermediate maturity (120 days), with yellow grain of the semi-dent type and glassy endosperm. The new variety is relatively drought tolerant, which is conditioned by the following features: average height plant, comparatively short leaves, and non-dense leafage. Its branched and deep root system also provides for increased drought tolerance. Under conditions of Armenia, such varieties are adapted to utilizing rainfall in the second half of summer and partly in autumn. As a result, Ani accumulates a large amount of organic weight. In many subsistence farms of the northeastern area of Armenia grain yield of Ani is as high as 6- 7 t/ha, which exceeds yield of the parental forms by 20-25%.

English

0409|AGRIS 0401|AL-Maize Program

Juan Carlos Mendieta

CIMMYT Publications Collection

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