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Armenian wild cereals and grain legumes as valuable genetic resource

By: Nazarova, E.A | Centro Internacional de Mejoramiento de Maiz y Trigo (CIMMYT) | Tbilisi (Georgia) 14-17 Jun 2004.
Contributor(s): Bedoshvili, D [ed.] | Stepanyan-Gandilyan, N.P [coaut.].
Material type: materialTypeLabelBookAnalytics: Show analyticsPublisher: Tbilisi (Georgia) CIMMYT : 2004Description: p. 285-286.Subject(s): Agroecosystems | Barley | Cereal crops | Disease control | Feed legumes | Grain legumes | Natural selection | Pest control | CIMMYT | Genetic resourcesDDC classification: 633.1147 Summary: Wild relatives of the crop plants are the species of the aboriginal flora, they are close to cultivars by their evolutionary and genetic characteristics. Wild species have developed co- adaptive gene systems under the influence of natural selection. These systems allow preserving the genotypic variability in a balance with the extemal environment. They are very important for both improvement of the agricultural production and maintenance of stable agro-ecosystems. There are many examples of utilization of wild relatives' useful genes for developing new varieties of crop plants (more resistant to pests and diseases, more salt-, drought-, cold-tolerant, etc.). Armenia, being a part of the Armenian up]and, is included in the West Asian center of origin of crop plants and is, therefore, the center of their significant variabi]ity. The progenitors and wild relatives of many crops still grow here (Gandilyan, 1973, 1989; Gandilyan, Avagyan, Nazarova, 2000; Nazarova, 1999,2000). Large and very interesting and promising groups ofthese plants are cereals, grain legumes, feed legumes, fruits, vegetables and manyothers. The data about wild relatives of crop plants is presented in the papers of Armenian plant bre- eders and botanists (Tumanian, 1930, 1936; Gara- seferian, 1939; Matevosian, 1950; Magakian, 1941, Araratian, 1940, 1948; Gandilian, 1972, 1980, 1991, etc.) These thisstudies are based on the research of N.I. Vavilov (1926) and students and fol1owers (Stoletova, 1930; Bachteev, 1955; Zhukovsky, 1971 and others). The wild relatives of cereals have big diversity in Armenian flora. There are 3 species of wild wheat (3 out of 4 wild species known to scientists ): Triticum urartu Thum. ex Gandil., T boeoticum Boiss.,and T araraticum Jakubz. The interest to Aegilops L. genus is explained by its role in the origination of tetra- and hexaploid wheats. Eight species of Aegilops L. grow in Armenia. Among them the A.tauschii Coss., with its significant intraspecific diversity, is the most interesting. The very interesting and rare species Amblyopyrum muticum (Jaub. et Spach.) also grows in Armenia. Wild species of rye are represented by very interesting annual species of rye -Secale vavilovii Grossh. s.l. and perennial species -Secale monta- num Guss. s.l., which are presented by 36 varieties. Eight species of barley grow in Armenia. The wild two-row barleys -Hordeum spontaneum C.Koch and H.bulbosum L. are of special interest for breeding. . All the above-mentioned species of wild ce- reals are known for significant intraspecific diversity. For instance, over 100 varieties of wild wheat species have been recorded. It is worth mentioning that in Armenia, in the places of cohabitation of wild spec- ies and cultivars, spontaneous hybridization, mutati- on and formation of new forms continue to take place, which are of great interest. Along with cereals, another big group is le- gumes. There are wild grain legumes: chickpea - CicerL., lentil-Lens Mill.,pea-PisumL., peren- nial pea- Vavilovia (Stev.) Fedor., vetch -Vicia L., vetchling -Lathyrus L., and feed legumes, such as alfalfa -Medicago L., sainfoin -Onobrychis MilI., red clover -Trifolium L., sweetclover - Melilotus MilI., etc., more than 120 species. Today, Arrnenian flora is represented by such relatives of cultivars as Cicer anatolicum Alef, Lens orientalis (Boiss) Hand. and L.ervoides Grossh., Pisum elatius Bieb., the only species of perennial pea- Vaviloviaformosa (Stev.) Fedor., more than 30 species of vetch, etc. AII of them are the carriers of invaluable genes and may be used for breeding if not today then in future. Our goal is to preserve them. Meanwhile, the natural populations of many species ofwild relatives of the cultural plants are under the growing threat of extinction. The significant genetic erosion, reduction of areas, elimination of some species and populations are observed. Our short-term expeditions (1999 and 2003) provide sufficient evidence thereof. The economic and political activities of the last 10-15 years (land privatization, lack of resources for monitoring, etc. ) have created the situation when no comprehensive data concerning the condition of population of wild relatives of cultivated plants are available. The preservation of this invaluable resource can be achieved through regular monitoring, its preservation in situ, collection of seeding materials for preservation ex situ in collections and gene banks.Collection: CIMMYT Publications Collection
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Conference proceedings CIMMYT Knowledge Center: John Woolston Library

Lic. Jose Juan Caballero Flores

 

CIMMYT Publications Collection 633.1147 BED (Browse shelf) 1 Available 1X630072
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Abstract only

Wild relatives of the crop plants are the species of the aboriginal flora, they are close to cultivars by their evolutionary and genetic characteristics. Wild species have developed co- adaptive gene systems under the influence of natural selection. These systems allow preserving the genotypic variability in a balance with the extemal environment. They are very important for both improvement of the agricultural production and maintenance of stable agro-ecosystems. There are many examples of utilization of wild relatives' useful genes for developing new varieties of crop plants (more resistant to pests and diseases, more salt-, drought-, cold-tolerant, etc.). Armenia, being a part of the Armenian up]and, is included in the West Asian center of origin of crop plants and is, therefore, the center of their significant variabi]ity. The progenitors and wild relatives of many crops still grow here (Gandilyan, 1973, 1989; Gandilyan, Avagyan, Nazarova, 2000; Nazarova, 1999,2000). Large and very interesting and promising groups ofthese plants are cereals, grain legumes, feed legumes, fruits, vegetables and manyothers. The data about wild relatives of crop plants is presented in the papers of Armenian plant bre- eders and botanists (Tumanian, 1930, 1936; Gara- seferian, 1939; Matevosian, 1950; Magakian, 1941, Araratian, 1940, 1948; Gandilian, 1972, 1980, 1991, etc.) These thisstudies are based on the research of N.I. Vavilov (1926) and students and fol1owers (Stoletova, 1930; Bachteev, 1955; Zhukovsky, 1971 and others). The wild relatives of cereals have big diversity in Armenian flora. There are 3 species of wild wheat (3 out of 4 wild species known to scientists ): Triticum urartu Thum. ex Gandil., T boeoticum Boiss.,and T araraticum Jakubz. The interest to Aegilops L. genus is explained by its role in the origination of tetra- and hexaploid wheats. Eight species of Aegilops L. grow in Armenia. Among them the A.tauschii Coss., with its significant intraspecific diversity, is the most interesting. The very interesting and rare species Amblyopyrum muticum (Jaub. et Spach.) also grows in Armenia. Wild species of rye are represented by very interesting annual species of rye -Secale vavilovii Grossh. s.l. and perennial species -Secale monta- num Guss. s.l., which are presented by 36 varieties. Eight species of barley grow in Armenia. The wild two-row barleys -Hordeum spontaneum C.Koch and H.bulbosum L. are of special interest for breeding. . All the above-mentioned species of wild ce- reals are known for significant intraspecific diversity. For instance, over 100 varieties of wild wheat species have been recorded. It is worth mentioning that in Armenia, in the places of cohabitation of wild spec- ies and cultivars, spontaneous hybridization, mutati- on and formation of new forms continue to take place, which are of great interest. Along with cereals, another big group is le- gumes. There are wild grain legumes: chickpea - CicerL., lentil-Lens Mill.,pea-PisumL., peren- nial pea- Vavilovia (Stev.) Fedor., vetch -Vicia L., vetchling -Lathyrus L., and feed legumes, such as alfalfa -Medicago L., sainfoin -Onobrychis MilI., red clover -Trifolium L., sweetclover - Melilotus MilI., etc., more than 120 species. Today, Arrnenian flora is represented by such relatives of cultivars as Cicer anatolicum Alef, Lens orientalis (Boiss) Hand. and L.ervoides Grossh., Pisum elatius Bieb., the only species of perennial pea- Vaviloviaformosa (Stev.) Fedor., more than 30 species of vetch, etc. AII of them are the carriers of invaluable genes and may be used for breeding if not today then in future. Our goal is to preserve them. Meanwhile, the natural populations of many species ofwild relatives of the cultural plants are under the growing threat of extinction. The significant genetic erosion, reduction of areas, elimination of some species and populations are observed. Our short-term expeditions (1999 and 2003) provide sufficient evidence thereof. The economic and political activities of the last 10-15 years (land privatization, lack of resources for monitoring, etc. ) have created the situation when no comprehensive data concerning the condition of population of wild relatives of cultivated plants are available. The preservation of this invaluable resource can be achieved through regular monitoring, its preservation in situ, collection of seeding materials for preservation ex situ in collections and gene banks.

English

0409|AGRIS 0401|AL-Wheat Program

Juan Carlos Mendieta

CIMMYT Publications Collection

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