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Spring wheat breeding and primary seed production under the conditions of Shirak planteau of Armenia

By: Muradyan, R | Centro Internacional de Mejoramiento de Maiz y Trigo (CIMMYT) | Tbilisi (Georgia) 14-17 Jun 2004.
Contributor(s): Asatryan, V [coaut.] | Bedoshvili, D [ed.] | Karakhanyan, R [coaut.].
Material type: materialTypeLabelBookAnalytics: Show analyticsPublisher: Tbilisi (Georgia) CIMMYT : 2004Description: p. 277-278.Subject(s): Barley | Bread | Hybridization | Seed production | Wheat | CIMMYT | Food security | Yields AGROVOC | Genotypes AGROVOC | Plant breeding AGROVOCDDC classification: 633.1147 Summary: Food security of Armenia is based on wheat production, which may be enhanced in two ways. The first way is introduction of high-yielding and input-responsive varieties. The second way is improvement of crop management practices to obtain higher yield from each unit of wheat area. Giumri Breeding Station, which is found on the Shirak plateau, has been engaged in breeding and seed multiplication of spring barley since the 40-ies of the last century. The first results were produced in 1957, when G. M. Davidovski developed varieties Norkondik and Delfi through individual plant selection. In the same year, variety Leninakanskaya 216 was also released. As a result of long-term research and wide- scale trials, G. P. Tsitokhtsian developed in 1979 variety of spring wheat Shirak 1 through transfor- mation of winter wheat Bezostaya 1. The variety produced average yield of 4.5 ton/ha which was for 0.9 ton/ha higherthan average yield of varieties Delfi and Norkondik. Later, the station introduced the hybridization technique in its breeding program. The best hybrid populations obtained from simple crosses were studied in different breeding nurseries. Thereafter, to generate more variability, large-scale crosses between winter and spring genotypes were carried out involving germplasm of Krasnodar RI of Agriculture and using more complicated methods Of hybridization such as top-cross. As a result of this program, variety Shirak 2 was released. It was selected &om segregating populations obtained on the top-cross (Shiraki 1 x Sette Tserros 66) F I xAur- ora. Variety Shiraki 2 was sown in the foothill and mountain regions of Armenia. Itout-yielded Shiraki 1 by 0.5-0.8 t/ha, matured earlier for 2-4 days and was input-responsive. In the period that followed the earthquake and civil war, the breeding program has made no headway. Only at the end of the 20th and the beginning of the 21 st centuries breeding research continued and in 2002 variety Ani was released to production. It was obtained by a stage-by-stage method: Bezostaya I underwent vernalization and was sowed in spring. Thereafter, it was crossed with Sette Tserros 66 (Sette Tserros 66 x Bezostaya 1 ). Variety Ani belongs to subspecies Lutescens. Its spike is awnless and white; grain is red and vitreous (90-94%). Its crude gluten content is 33%, while I OOO-grain-weight ranges within 39-43 g.Ani's grain yield exceeds that of the varieties of spring wheat by 15 %. When wheat is damaged or devastated by early-spring frosts, it can be re-planted by spring wheat and still reasonable yield can be obtained. Spring wheat is also sown on the vacant fields from the late maturing crop. Spring wheat is a good nurse crop for grass as well as grit crops. Giumri Breeding Station is the only one in Armenia being engaged in spring wheat breeding and seed multiplication. Primary production of the above-mentioned varieties has been organized at the station with the annual production of elite seed being equal to 50.0-60.0 tons for each variety. Shiraki 1,2 and others are known for their high adaptation and are highly demanded by the local fanners. To develop new improved varieties, we have utilized gennplasm provided by CIMMYT. About 260 entries were studied in 2003. Those entries that demonstrated high adaptation to our climatic conditions have been selected and will be used in crosses in 2004.Collection: CIMMYT Publications Collection
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Conference proceedings CIMMYT Knowledge Center: John Woolston Library

Lic. Jose Juan Caballero Flores

 

CIMMYT Publications Collection 633.1147 BED (Browse shelf) 1 Available 1Q630072
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Abstract only

Food security of Armenia is based on wheat production, which may be enhanced in two ways. The first way is introduction of high-yielding and input-responsive varieties. The second way is improvement of crop management practices to obtain higher yield from each unit of wheat area. Giumri Breeding Station, which is found on the Shirak plateau, has been engaged in breeding and seed multiplication of spring barley since the 40-ies of the last century. The first results were produced in 1957, when G. M. Davidovski developed varieties Norkondik and Delfi through individual plant selection. In the same year, variety Leninakanskaya 216 was also released. As a result of long-term research and wide- scale trials, G. P. Tsitokhtsian developed in 1979 variety of spring wheat Shirak 1 through transfor- mation of winter wheat Bezostaya 1. The variety produced average yield of 4.5 ton/ha which was for 0.9 ton/ha higherthan average yield of varieties Delfi and Norkondik. Later, the station introduced the hybridization technique in its breeding program. The best hybrid populations obtained from simple crosses were studied in different breeding nurseries. Thereafter, to generate more variability, large-scale crosses between winter and spring genotypes were carried out involving germplasm of Krasnodar RI of Agriculture and using more complicated methods Of hybridization such as top-cross. As a result of this program, variety Shirak 2 was released. It was selected &om segregating populations obtained on the top-cross (Shiraki 1 x Sette Tserros 66) F I xAur- ora. Variety Shiraki 2 was sown in the foothill and mountain regions of Armenia. Itout-yielded Shiraki 1 by 0.5-0.8 t/ha, matured earlier for 2-4 days and was input-responsive. In the period that followed the earthquake and civil war, the breeding program has made no headway. Only at the end of the 20th and the beginning of the 21 st centuries breeding research continued and in 2002 variety Ani was released to production. It was obtained by a stage-by-stage method: Bezostaya I underwent vernalization and was sowed in spring. Thereafter, it was crossed with Sette Tserros 66 (Sette Tserros 66 x Bezostaya 1 ). Variety Ani belongs to subspecies Lutescens. Its spike is awnless and white; grain is red and vitreous (90-94%). Its crude gluten content is 33%, while I OOO-grain-weight ranges within 39-43 g.Ani's grain yield exceeds that of the varieties of spring wheat by 15 %. When wheat is damaged or devastated by early-spring frosts, it can be re-planted by spring wheat and still reasonable yield can be obtained. Spring wheat is also sown on the vacant fields from the late maturing crop. Spring wheat is a good nurse crop for grass as well as grit crops. Giumri Breeding Station is the only one in Armenia being engaged in spring wheat breeding and seed multiplication. Primary production of the above-mentioned varieties has been organized at the station with the annual production of elite seed being equal to 50.0-60.0 tons for each variety. Shiraki 1,2 and others are known for their high adaptation and are highly demanded by the local fanners. To develop new improved varieties, we have utilized gennplasm provided by CIMMYT. About 260 entries were studied in 2003. Those entries that demonstrated high adaptation to our climatic conditions have been selected and will be used in crosses in 2004.

English

0409|AGRIS 0401|AL-Wheat Program

Juan Carlos Mendieta

CIMMYT Publications Collection

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