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Winter maize: Production systems, current practices and future prospect

By: Baldos, D.P | Centro Internacional de Mejoramiento de Maiz y Trigo (CIMMYT), Mexico, DF (Mexico).
Contributor(s): Vasal, S.K [coaut.] | Vasal, S.K.|Gonzalez Ceniceros, F.|XiongMing, F [eds.].
Material type: materialTypeLabelBookAnalytics: Show analyticsPublisher: Los Baños, Laguna (Philippines) PCARRD : 2000Description: 4 pages.Subject(s): Asia | Crop management | Maize | Plant production | Production factors | Research projects | Winter crops | CIMMYT | Zea mays AGROVOC | Farming systems AGROVOCSummary: With a rapidly expanding feed, food use and to a certain extent growing industrial processing capacities, many of the maize growing countries in Asia are going to see increasing demand for domestically produced maize. The planting area suitable to maize production in these countries, however will reach a limit so additional lands allocated to other crops must be used, at least in some season, to meet the demand for maize grain. In recent years, maize grown as a winter crop has gained modest headway in a few countries, namely; China India, Vietnam, Philippines, Indonesia and few others. Farmers' use and adoption of the hybrid maize technology for winter maize production made possible on-farm yield levels that make the maize crop an economically competitive and attractive option.|The winter maize crop is generally grown during the period October -January, in a wide variety of ecologically complex and stressful environments. The three main production system include: i) the rainfed maize in flood plains or river delta, ii) rainfed upland maize and iii) irrigated maize after paddy. Highly fertile alluvial soils of the flood plains and river delta sustain a predictably high yielding (8-11 tons per ha) winter maize crop while the rainfed upland winter maize, often marginally productive occupies an increasingly small area of cultivation throughout the region. The latter is prone to declining soil fertility, acidic soil reaction and drought stress. Irrigated maize after paddy, using the hybrid maize technology is increasing in area planted. The major yield limiting factors under this system are waterlogging stress during the crop establishment stage, drought stress towards the reproductive stages, nutrient stresses, in addition to weeds and pest (rodents) problems. A short duration low temperature stress is also noted to lower the yield potential in a few area of winter maize cultivation. Owing to vigorous research and extension efforts, hybrid maize technology, improved agronomic practices, efficient use of recommended inputs, judicious water management and soil moisture conserving practices are becoming part of the farmers' conciousness in growing the winter maize crop. Innovative crop establishment techniques such as transplanting, although labor intensive, is being done in a few countries to overcome a number of production problems when winter maize is fitted into a predominantly rice based cropping pattern. Whereas, conventional tillage remains the major land preparation practice, research results show that minimum tillage can be employed without compromising yield. The cost saving factor, greater flexibility as well as other benefits from this system, however remains to be realized in the farmers' fields. Shallow tube well irrigation system already in place supports a profitable maize production in place of the high water requiring winter rice crop. Except for sporadic rodent damage, the incidence of pest and diseases in winter maize is observed to be low in frequency and severity. An increasing demand for maize grain and a declining trend in the profitability of rice (possibly other crops) will ensure that winter maize will continue to expand in planting area in the future. However, as this development will unfold, the research thrusts join maize may have to be refocused to meet new production challenges. In maize breeding and research, the need to develop early maturity, multi-stress tolerant hybrid products will have to be intensified and accelerated. Likewise, efficient, resource conserving (sustaining) and cost reducing agronomic practices have to be evolved, packaged, pilot tested and fine tuned to suit location specific winter maize production areas. This paper characterizes the present winter maize production systems, reviews the current practices and attempts to forsee future prospects in the light of increasing maize productivity in the Asian region.Collection: CIMMYT Staff Publications Collection
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With a rapidly expanding feed, food use and to a certain extent growing industrial processing capacities, many of the maize growing countries in Asia are going to see increasing demand for domestically produced maize. The planting area suitable to maize production in these countries, however will reach a limit so additional lands allocated to other crops must be used, at least in some season, to meet the demand for maize grain. In recent years, maize grown as a winter crop has gained modest headway in a few countries, namely; China India, Vietnam, Philippines, Indonesia and few others. Farmers' use and adoption of the hybrid maize technology for winter maize production made possible on-farm yield levels that make the maize crop an economically competitive and attractive option.|The winter maize crop is generally grown during the period October -January, in a wide variety of ecologically complex and stressful environments. The three main production system include: i) the rainfed maize in flood plains or river delta, ii) rainfed upland maize and iii) irrigated maize after paddy. Highly fertile alluvial soils of the flood plains and river delta sustain a predictably high yielding (8-11 tons per ha) winter maize crop while the rainfed upland winter maize, often marginally productive occupies an increasingly small area of cultivation throughout the region. The latter is prone to declining soil fertility, acidic soil reaction and drought stress. Irrigated maize after paddy, using the hybrid maize technology is increasing in area planted. The major yield limiting factors under this system are waterlogging stress during the crop establishment stage, drought stress towards the reproductive stages, nutrient stresses, in addition to weeds and pest (rodents) problems. A short duration low temperature stress is also noted to lower the yield potential in a few area of winter maize cultivation. Owing to vigorous research and extension efforts, hybrid maize technology, improved agronomic practices, efficient use of recommended inputs, judicious water management and soil moisture conserving practices are becoming part of the farmers' conciousness in growing the winter maize crop. Innovative crop establishment techniques such as transplanting, although labor intensive, is being done in a few countries to overcome a number of production problems when winter maize is fitted into a predominantly rice based cropping pattern. Whereas, conventional tillage remains the major land preparation practice, research results show that minimum tillage can be employed without compromising yield. The cost saving factor, greater flexibility as well as other benefits from this system, however remains to be realized in the farmers' fields. Shallow tube well irrigation system already in place supports a profitable maize production in place of the high water requiring winter rice crop. Except for sporadic rodent damage, the incidence of pest and diseases in winter maize is observed to be low in frequency and severity. An increasing demand for maize grain and a declining trend in the profitability of rice (possibly other crops) will ensure that winter maize will continue to expand in planting area in the future. However, as this development will unfold, the research thrusts join maize may have to be refocused to meet new production challenges. In maize breeding and research, the need to develop early maturity, multi-stress tolerant hybrid products will have to be intensified and accelerated. Likewise, efficient, resource conserving (sustaining) and cost reducing agronomic practices have to be evolved, packaged, pilot tested and fine tuned to suit location specific winter maize production areas. This paper characterizes the present winter maize production systems, reviews the current practices and attempts to forsee future prospects in the light of increasing maize productivity in the Asian region.

English

0208|AGRIS 0201|AL-Maize Program|R01PROCE

CIMMYT Staff Publications Collection

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