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Effects of tillage, crop rotation and nitrogen fertilization on wheat-grain quality grown under rainfed Mediterranean conditions

By: López-Bellido, L.
Contributor(s): Fuentes, M | Castillo, J.E | López-Garrido, F.J.
Material type: materialTypeLabelArticlePublisher: Netherlands : Elsevier, 1998ISSN: 0378-4290.Subject(s): Grain | Crop rotation | Nitrogen fertilizers | Rainfed farming | Tillage | Wheat In: Field Crops Research v. 57, no. 3, p. 265-276Summary: The grain quality of wheat is influenced by the protein content, which in turn depends on environmental conditions and cropping practices. We carried out a 3-year field study in a rainfed Mediterranean region on the effects of tillage, crop rotation and nitrogen fertilization on the grain quality of hard red spring wheat (Triticum aestivum) in terms of protein content, test weight and alveogram indices. Tillage treatments were no tillage (NT) and conventional tillage (CT). Crop rotations were wheat–sunflower (Helianthus annus L.) (WS), wheat–chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) (WCP), wheat–fababean (Vicia faba L.) (WFB), wheat–fallow (WF) and continuous wheat (CW). Fertilizer nitrogen was used at three different rates: 50, 100 and 150 kg N ha−1. A split–split plot design with four replicates was used. Grain protein content was found to be inversely proportional to rainfall during the growing season. The tillage method was also found to affect grain protein content, test weight and some grain quality indices. Through its effect on moisture and nitrate in the soil. The crop rotations that included a legume (WCP and WFB) had marked effects on wheat quality. The increased grain protein content and resulted in improved rheological properties of the dough (viz. a higher alveogram index and a more balanced tenacity/extensibility ratio). However, no differences due to N dilution in the plant were observed in the wettest year studied, which was also the highest yielding. Increasing the fertilizer N rate increased the grain protein content; this variable had the most marked influence on grain quality indices, though in the year that gave the highest yield the N dilution effect was observed. The many significant interactions among experimental variables reveal a close relationship among grain yield, protein content, grain quality and the wheat growth conditions. Specifically, the amount of rainfall and its distribution in the growing season strongly influenced N availability and uptake by the crop, as well as wheat-grain quality indices.
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Lic. Jose Juan Caballero Flores

 

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The grain quality of wheat is influenced by the protein content, which in turn depends on environmental conditions and cropping practices. We carried out a 3-year field study in a rainfed Mediterranean region on the effects of tillage, crop rotation and nitrogen fertilization on the grain quality of hard red spring wheat (Triticum aestivum) in terms of protein content, test weight and alveogram indices. Tillage treatments were no tillage (NT) and conventional tillage (CT). Crop rotations were wheat–sunflower (Helianthus annus L.) (WS), wheat–chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) (WCP), wheat–fababean (Vicia faba L.) (WFB), wheat–fallow (WF) and continuous wheat (CW). Fertilizer nitrogen was used at three different rates: 50, 100 and 150 kg N ha−1. A split–split plot design with four replicates was used. Grain protein content was found to be inversely proportional to rainfall during the growing season. The tillage method was also found to affect grain protein content, test weight and some grain quality indices. Through its effect on moisture and nitrate in the soil. The crop rotations that included a legume (WCP and WFB) had marked effects on wheat quality. The increased grain protein content and resulted in improved rheological properties of the dough (viz. a higher alveogram index and a more balanced tenacity/extensibility ratio). However, no differences due to N dilution in the plant were observed in the wettest year studied, which was also the highest yielding. Increasing the fertilizer N rate increased the grain protein content; this variable had the most marked influence on grain quality indices, though in the year that gave the highest yield the N dilution effect was observed. The many significant interactions among experimental variables reveal a close relationship among grain yield, protein content, grain quality and the wheat growth conditions. Specifically, the amount of rainfall and its distribution in the growing season strongly influenced N availability and uptake by the crop, as well as wheat-grain quality indices.

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