Normal view MARC view ISBD view

Identification of drought tolerance in elite tropical highland maize germplasm

By: Srinivasan, G | Centro Internacional de Mejoramiento de Maiz y Trigo (CIMMYT), Mexico DF (Mexico).
Contributor(s): Edmeades, G.O [coaut.] | Edmeades, G.O.|Banziger, M.|Mickelson, H.R.|Peña-Valdivia, C.B [eds.] | Lothrop, J.E [coaut.] | Torres, J.L [coaut.] | Banziger, M.
Material type: materialTypeLabelBookAnalytics: Show analyticsPublisher: Mexico, DF (Mexico) CIMMYT : 1997ISBN: 968-6923-93-4.Subject(s): Crop management | Drought resistance | Drought stress AGROVOC | Germplasm | Resistance to injurious factors | Selection | Tropical zones | CIMMYT | Zea mays AGROVOC | Genotypes AGROVOCDDC classification: 633.153 Summary: Drought is extremely common in the tropical highlands. An estimated 2.8 million ha (81 %) in this mega-environment is planted to maize genotypes that are usually or frequently subject to moisture stress. Most local varieties have an anthesis-silking interval (ASI) of 5-12 days under moderate stress and show very poor root development. Improved CIMMYT populations have much improved root strength and a reduced ASI - both traits derived from temperate and subtropical germplasm. Besides improving yield, ASI and root strength, we are also developing populations that are considerably early maturing than the local varieties to escape drought stress. Farmers in the tropical highlands also plant deep (20-25 cm) to utilize residual moisture. Ability to emerge from deep planting is attributed to mesocotyl elongation. CIMMYT has developed elite highland germplasm with capacity to emerge from deep planting. Some highland germplasm (e.g., 'Michoacan 21') also possess a putative latente trait which results in a cessation of plant growth when drought stress occurs during the early vegetative stages, followed by enhanced recovery when the rains come. A breeding methodology developed for improving drought tolerance in lowland tropical germplasm at CIMMYT is currently being used in selected highland germplasm. A total of 100 S1 lines derived from tropical highland early white semi-dent germplasm were subjected to drought stress and the best and worst fractions, based on ASI, yield and other traits, were selected and used to form synthetics. Additionally, we have modified the interpopulation improvement scheme for Populations 901 and 902 (early white semi-dent) to incorporate selection for drought tolerance as well as for nitrogen use efficiency. Calera 9185, a drought tolerant variety, was formed based on evaluation of full-sib progenies from Pop. 85 under terminal drought at Calera, Zacatecas, Mexico, during 1991. The breeding strategy used in improving germplasm for the tropical highlands is to pyramid traits, such as drought tolerance and nitrogen use efficiency, along with other important resistance genes for biotic stresses in elite high- yielding germplasm.Collection: CIMMYT Publications Collection
Tags from this library: No tags from this library for this title. Log in to add tags.
    average rating: 0.0 (0 votes)
Item type Current location Collection Call number Copy number Status Date due Barcode Item holds
Conference proceedings CIMMYT Knowledge Center: John Woolston Library

Lic. Jose Juan Caballero Flores

 

CIMMYT Publications Collection 633.153 EDM (Browse shelf) 1 Available 2H624179
Total holds: 0

Drought is extremely common in the tropical highlands. An estimated 2.8 million ha (81 %) in this mega-environment is planted to maize genotypes that are usually or frequently subject to moisture stress. Most local varieties have an anthesis-silking interval (ASI) of 5-12 days under moderate stress and show very poor root development. Improved CIMMYT populations have much improved root strength and a reduced ASI - both traits derived from temperate and subtropical germplasm. Besides improving yield, ASI and root strength, we are also developing populations that are considerably early maturing than the local varieties to escape drought stress. Farmers in the tropical highlands also plant deep (20-25 cm) to utilize residual moisture. Ability to emerge from deep planting is attributed to mesocotyl elongation. CIMMYT has developed elite highland germplasm with capacity to emerge from deep planting. Some highland germplasm (e.g., 'Michoacan 21') also possess a putative latente trait which results in a cessation of plant growth when drought stress occurs during the early vegetative stages, followed by enhanced recovery when the rains come. A breeding methodology developed for improving drought tolerance in lowland tropical germplasm at CIMMYT is currently being used in selected highland germplasm. A total of 100 S1 lines derived from tropical highland early white semi-dent germplasm were subjected to drought stress and the best and worst fractions, based on ASI, yield and other traits, were selected and used to form synthetics. Additionally, we have modified the interpopulation improvement scheme for Populations 901 and 902 (early white semi-dent) to incorporate selection for drought tolerance as well as for nitrogen use efficiency. Calera 9185, a drought tolerant variety, was formed based on evaluation of full-sib progenies from Pop. 85 under terminal drought at Calera, Zacatecas, Mexico, during 1991. The breeding strategy used in improving germplasm for the tropical highlands is to pyramid traits, such as drought tolerance and nitrogen use efficiency, along with other important resistance genes for biotic stresses in elite high- yielding germplasm.

Research and Partnership Program

English

9802|AGRIS 9702|anterior|R97-98PROCE|FINAL9798

Jose Juan Caballero

INT1888

CIMMYT Publications Collection

There are no comments for this item.

Log in to your account to post a comment.
baner

International Maize and Wheat Improvement Center (CIMMYT) © Copyright 2015. Carretera México-Veracruz. Km. 45, El Batán, Texcoco, México, C.P. 56237.
Monday –Friday 9:00 am. 17:00 pm. If you have any question, please contact us at CIMMYT-Knowledge-Center@cgiar.org

Centro Internacional de Mejoramiento de Maíz y Trigo (CIMMYT) © Copyright 2015. Carretera México-Veracruz. Km. 45, El Batán, Texcoco, México, C.P. 56237.
Lunes –Viernes 9:00 am. 17:00 pm. Si tiene cualquier pregunta, contáctenos a CIMMYT-Knowledge-Center@cgiar.org