Climate vulnerabilities and wheat production - Academic Press : 2013 - p. 57-67
Wheat is a major cereal crop in the world and shares about 21% of the global food production. Based on the average data from 2007?09, the global wheat area is 221.7 million ha, with an average yield of 2977 kg ha−1, and production of 660 million tonnes. It is a major source of energy in human diet, due to its protein content higher than almost all other cereals. It is the most widespread cereal in terms of planting area. Bread wheat (Triticum aestivum) accounts for more than 90% of global production and it is grown on a substantial scale (over 100 000 ha) in more than 70 countries on 5 continents. It is mainly used to make bread including steamed bread, noodles, cookies, cakes, and breakfast cereals. Wheat can be classified as winter and spring type, based on the requirement of vernalization. Spring and winter bread wheat share around 70 and 30%, respectively. Durum wheat (Triticum durum) accounts for about 5% of global wheat production and is produced mainly in North Africa and Western Asia (35%), North America (35%), and EU (30%). Most durum wheat is spring type, and it is used to produce semolina, pasta, and cracked wheat products such as couscous or bulgur. About 66% of global wheat production is used for food, and the remaining 34% for feed and other purpose. Demand for wheat for human and feed consumption in developing countries in 2020 is expected to increase at 1.6% and 2.6% per year, respectively. The global average wheat yield will have to increase during the next 25 years from 2.6 to 3.5 t ha−1. Other reports indicate that demand for wheat in developing countries is projected to increase by 60% by 2050. Therefore, increasing wheat productivity is crucial for food and feed security, particularly in the developing countries.
Wheat maize rotation
Wheat rice rotation