Soil and environment features of wheat habitat area in the zone of intensive farming systems in East Georgia - Tbilisi (Georgia) CIMMYT : 2004 - p. 326-327 - Printed
From the ancient times and to this day wheat holds leading place among the grain crops. This fact is due to of its nutritional and farming characteristics. First of all the wheat bread is a unique product providing the balanced food ration. Secondly, the wheat is widely used in Livestock breeding as feed. The chemical components of wheat -proteins, fats, and carbohydrates are very valuable. Low moisture contents of its grain enable its stock storage and transportations to big distances. Due to these characteristics the area occupied by wheat in the world reaches 230 million ha, while the annual production of wheat grain is 400 million tons. In East Georgia wheat takes the leading place among crops. However, its low productivity, which does not exceed 23-25 c/ha, should be noted. Whe- reas, in European countries wheat productivity is 3- 4 times higher and reaches 90-100c/ha. Development of the advanced technologies of wheat cultivation is necessary to overcome the above-described prob- lem. Wheat is quite responsive to soil fertility. Fertile structured soils are desirable forw heat cultivation. Chernozems are the soils, which guarantee high yield of wheat. Along with other crop management factors high crops of wheat could be provisioned through the correct choice of the predecessor culture in crop rotation. Experiments and farming practice prove that the best results are reached after fallow, the black fallow being the most effective. Effecti- ve predecessor crops are also cereals, leguminous crops, annual grasses, silage maize, etc. Thus, we can conclude that high yield and quality grain can be provisioned through planting on fertile soils and implementing crop rotation involving the best predecessors.
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