Brewbaker, J.L.

Advances in breeding specialty maize types - Los Baños, Laguna (Philippines) PCARRD : 2000 - p. 444-450 - Printed

Specialty maize types are distinguished from common commodity maize by genotype and by market use. Increasing attention has been given to these genotypes and the value-added products they might afford to the maize industries of the world (Hallauer, 1994). The typical commodity maize is a yellow dent or flint, and in the United States over 50% is fed to animals, while more than 30% is exported (largely for feed use) and about 20% milled (wet milling 12%, dry milling 4%). The milled products are considered specialties in many cases6e.g., ethanol, high-fructose c9rn sugar, starches for use in plastics. This review focusses on maize that is considered to have a specialty use, including vegetable maize, specialty starches, waxy and high-amylose types, high-oil maize, high protein quality maize and popcorn. Many are based on the following gene loci:||Important Gene Loci in Common Specialty Maize Types||Gene Svmbol Locus Phenotype|---genes affecting sugar contents ---|brittle-1 bt 5L-42 high sucrose, wrinkled|brittle-2 bt2 4S-48 high su~rose, wrinkledc|shrunken-2 sh2 3L-l49 high sucrose, wrinkled|sugary-l su 4S-47 highWSP,glassy,wrinkled|sugary-enhancer se 4L- ? modifies su to increase sucrose|---genes affecting carbohydrate composition ---|amylose extender ae 5L-57 small, translucent|dull du 10L-31 small, translucent or opaque|sugary-2 su2 6L-58 opaque, dull|horny (soft starch) h 3- ? opaque|waxy wx 9S-56 opaque|---genes affecting protein composition ---|floury fl 2S-68 opaque|floury-2 fl2 4S-39 opaque|opaque-2 02 7S-16 opaque|---genes affecting kernel color ---|yellow endosperm y 6L-l7 white kernel, no carotenoid|red aleurone pr 5L-67 red/purple aleurone (with ACR)|intensifier in 7S-20 blue/purple aleurone (with ACRPr)|pale yellow endosperm y8 7S-18 pale endosperm (modifies Y)|This list is but the tip of an iceberg, as maize genetic research is revealing many QTLs (quantitative trait loci) that affect the quality of the maize plant and its kernels, opening potential new markets. Particularly interesting commercially are the high-oil 'top cross' maize, the quality-protein hard-endosperm opaques, and the modified starch types (many now attracting patent protection). The list of potential specialties and value-added products from maize is essentially unending, and it offers an intriguing target to the ingenuity and innovation of maize scientists


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Maize
Oilseeds
Popcorn
Protein quality
Seed industry
Seed production
Genotypes
Hybrids

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