Chapman, S.C.

Genotype by environment effects and selection for drought tolerance in tropical maize. 2: Three-mode pattern analysis - 1997 - Printed

Peer-review: Yes - Open Access: Yes|

A selection program in three tropical maize populations aimed to improve tolerance of mid-season to late season drought environments while maintaining grain yield (GY) potential. The selection process employed other attributes that included maintaining a constant anthesis date (AD) and, under drought, shortening the anthesis-silking interval (ASI) and increasing ear number per plant (EPP). Three-mode (genotypes x environments x attributes) pattern analysis, which consists of clustering and ordination, should be able to collectively interpret these changes from ten evaluation trials. Mixture maximum likelihood clustering identified four groups that indicated the populations' performance had changed with selection. Groups containing the advanced cycles of selection were higher yielding in most environments and had lower ASI and higher EPP, particularly in drought environments. Check entries with no selection for drought tolerance remained grouped with the initial cycles of selection. A 3 x 2 x 3 (genotypes by environments by attributes) principal component model explained 70% of the variation. For the first environmental component, ASI was shown to be highly negatively correlated with both GY and EPP while anthesis date (AD) was virtually uncorrelated with other traits. The second environmental component (explaining 10% of the variation) contrasted droughted and well-watered environments and showed that EPP and GY were better indicators of this contrast (in terms of changes in population performance) than were AD or ASI. Three-mode analysis demonstrated that improvements with selection occurred in both droughted and well-watered environments and clearly summarised the overall success of the breeding program


1573-5060 (Revista en electrónico)

Drought resistance
Genotype environment interaction
Research projects
Zea mays
Plant breeding

Tropical maize CIMMYT

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